We see troubling signs in much of the dog and cat population in North America: Obesity, increase in diabetes, and heart and orthopedic issues. We knew pet parents were often too busy with jobs, children and life to exercise their dogs properly. And when too busy, and feeling guilty about leaving their pets alone so long, pet parents tended to over-feed and over-treat to compensate. We developed Boreal to provide an affordable and healthy pet food solution using low Glycemic Index ingredients.
UNDERSTANDING GLYCEMIC INDEX
Glycemic Index (GI) is a human measure of how quickly blood sugar levels rise after eating a type of food. The same effect happens in pets. Carbohydrates break down quickly and release glucose (a type of sugar) rapidly into the bloodstream. A low GI score is healthier.
(Glycemic index chart)
- Glucose / Sugar has a GI of 100.
- High GI (greater than 70) foods: white bread, most white rice, corn flakes, breakfast cereals, pretzels, French fries.
- Medium GI (between 56-69) foods: potatoes, pita bread, white enriched bread.
- Low GI (less than 55) foods: beans, most vegetables, most fruits.
- Meat has a GI of virtually 0.
GLYCEMIC INDEX IS IMPORTANT WHEN CHOOSING PET FOOD
A low GI results in a slow release of glucose. Low GI pet foods leave dogs and cats feeling full longer. All Boréal foods use low GI peas, beans and meats as our base.
CARBOHYDRATES AND PROTEINS
In addition to questions about the Glycemic Index, many pet owners have asked about protein numbers and carbohydrate percentages. What are carbs? What are good carbs versus bad carbs? What is a protein?
Carbohydrates are nutrients, and the major source of energy for all animals.
Carbohydrates range in structure from a simple small glucose molecule to a large complex molecule such as a starch. Think about “carbs” as building blocks, with simple sugars such as glucose being small blocks that can be put together in different ways to form longer complex chains. When your pet eats a complex carbohydrate, their digestive system breaks the large chain back into smaller blocks and simple sugars. These simple sugars are then absorbed into the blood stream.
Foods full of simple sugars - or simple “carbs” - (think white bread, French fries and pasta) are easily absorbed and can quickly get turned into fat. Foods full of complex “carbs” (think salad, beans or celery) require more time for the body to break them down to simple sugars.
So simple “carbs” are bad and complex “carbs” are good.
Generally we try to reduce the percent of “carbs” in most of our diets, both for pets and people. Boreal dry pet foods typically have Carbohydrate levels in 27-32% range.
Proteins are similar to carbohydrates in that they are complex molecules, but where “carbs” are built out of sugars, proteins are built from smaller amino acids.
Protein cannot be stored in your pet’s body like fat, so you must provide protein daily to maintain healthy bodily functions.
Proteins are important for your pet’s:
- muscle, skin, blood, bone and cartilage
- ability to repair and build tissue
- ability to speed up enzymes reactions
- Hormone levels
In pet foods, protein can come from meat sources or from plants. In the past, pet owners used to feed cornmeal based dog foods that lead to weight gain. Today, cornmeal is found only in the cheaper pet food diets. Pet foods with a large percent of meat protein are considered a higher quality product.
Boreal Original dog foods contain between 65-80% protein from meat, with a total protein level in 25-28% range.
If your dog is more of a house pet versus a working dog then watch the total percent protein number. We think total protein for house dogs should run in 25-28% range. Higher percent protein can cause stomach issues.
HEALTHY PET FEEDING TIPS
Did You Know? Tip #1
Actually measure the food with a measuring cup. An 8 oz ‘exact’ measure is often much less than the ‘scoop’ we see in most dog food bins.
Did You Know? Tip #2
Don’t fall for ‘sad eyes’ - also called “I have not eaten for weeks”
Did You Know? Tip #3
Biscuits and treats are fine in moderation. If the ‘sad eye’ trick keeps working, add fresh green beans or fresh carrots to your treats menu.
Did You Know? Tip #4
Feed at same time every day. We all like routine and getting on the same schedule will make it easier to “just say no” to extra meals.
Did You Know? Tip #5
We really like using a cup or so of frozen green beans to help stretch the carefully measured kibble at dinner. Beans are low glycemic and very low in calories, and when frozen even add some ‘crunch’.
Did You Know? Tip #6
Avoid feeding too much extra ‘people food’. These days, most of us are not exactly eating a great diet so feeding the pizza crust or the rest of the cookie is not always best for our pup.
Did You Know? Tip #7
All grains are not ‘bad’. Corn and wheat are much in the news these days and are by many thought of as ‘bad grains’, as are products made from corn and wheat (think white bread and nacho chips).
Some grains are low glycemic index. Oatmeal is a good example of low GI grain product. Boreal Proper foods use good / proper grains: steel cut oats and barley. So while Boreal Proper is not a ‘grain-free’ diet the healthy grains used make Proper an excellent choice to keep your dog or cat at a good weight.
Did You Know? Tip #8
We think you should feed to the body condition of your pets. If you are unsure the body condition of your pups or cats, then next time at your vet you should ask.
Information on Taurine
There has been a number of recent stories on Taurine and possible effects on health. We add supplemental Taurine to all our diets. For more:
Turkey (fresh deboned MDM)
Source of highly digestible proteins mainly made of fresh deboned turkey (meat). it provides a source of highly digestible protein from uncooked turkey meat, which helps maintain superior nutritional value and taste. Turkey offers an interesting level of Lysine and Leucine, 2 essential amino acids important for the maintenance of muscles, organs and metabolism. it is also an excellent source of fat and therefore energy, especially Omega-6 fatty acids that will promote a soft and silky coat and a healthy skin.
Source of highly digestible proteins made of turkey flesh (meat), skin and some bones, cooked and ground.
Chicken (fresh deboned - MDM)
Source of highly digestible proteins mainly made of fresh deboned chicken (meat). It provides a source of highly digestible protein from uncooked chicken meat, which helps maintain superior nutritional value and taste. The chicken offers an interesting level of Lysine and Leucine, 2 essential amino acids important for the maintenance of muscles, organs and metabolism. It is also an excellent source of fat and therefore energy, especially Omega-6 fatty acids that will promote a soft and silky coat and a healthy skin.
Chicken meal (low ash)
Source of highly digestible proteins made of chicken flesh (meat), skin and some bones, cooked and ground. This low ash meal is made with less bones added to make sure ash and magnesium levels stay low in order to meet the needs of cats.
A source of highly digestible, nutritious and flavourful proteins consisting primarily of local trout flesh. Trout offers more protein than salmon which means higher levels of Lysine, Methionine, Arginine and Leucine, 4 essential amino acids important for maintaining muscles, organs and metabolism. It is also an excellent source of high-quality fat, especially Omega-3 fatty acids (ADH and EPA) that will promote a soft, silky coat and healthy skin, but offering lower fat content than salmon.
Source of highly digestible proteins mainly made of salmon flesh (meat), cooked and ground. Salmon offers a high level of Lysine, Arginine and Leucine, 3 essential amino acids important for maintaining muscles, organs and metabolism. It is also an excellent source of high-quality fat, especially Omega-3 fatty acids (ADH and EPA) that will promote a soft, silky coat and healthy skin.
Dried whole eggs
Dried whole eggs is providing all of the benefits of a fresh egg without the inconvenience. Eggs are the highest biological value protein source with a 100% score. Dried whole and are made from dehydration of fresh eggs without shell and provide high levels of protein and fat.
Source of energy and Omega-6 fatty acids made exclusively of chicken fat.
Extracted from Atlantic salmon, salmon oil is highly nutritious, pure and tasty. It is an excellent source of essential Omega-3 fatty acids with high levels of DHA and EPA.
Excellent and delicious highly digestible carbohydrate and energy source rich in vitamin A and beta-carotene and low in fiber. It has a low Glycemic Index rating as raw and even better when cooked which may help promote a healthy weight and keep lower blood sugar level. As it is known, the glycemic index is a measure of the effect that a food / ingredient has on blood glucose level. A key factor of sweet potatoes, in addition to the low glycemic index, is the impact on the gastro-intestinal tract due to the way they are processed and cooked. Through extrusion, starches are gelatinized which brings them a more viscous —jelly like consistency.
This attribute makes the glucose released more slowly in the digestive system bringing sweet potatoes even safer on that glycemic index side.
It is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds. Despite the name, buckwheat is not a grass neither a cereal. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel, knotweed, and rhubarb. Its seeds are an excellent source of complex carbohydrates which help provide an excellent energy source to animals.
Pumpkin is a deep yellow to orange squash plant originating from North America. It provides an excellent source of dietary fiber found in the flesh which help maintain stool consistency. It is also a very nice source of beta-carotene as well as zinc, vitamin A and C.
They are the dried seeds of plants in the legume family also known as pulses. They are an excellent non-GMO source of carbohydrates (about 60%) with high gluten-free protein level (about 25 %) and low-fat level (about 1%), rich in dietary fibers (about 19 %) and minerals as well as in B Complex vitamins.
Sun-dried miscanthus grass (fiber)
Miscanthus grass is a perennial herbaceous plant of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) native from Africa and South Asia (Japan, China and Korea) introduced in North America near the end of the nineteenth century. It is a non-GMO grass spreading by its underground roots system, sometimes by seeds, capable of reaching up to 2 meters or more, offering an excellent alternative fiber source (45 to 50% crude fiber) to beet pulp and cellulose. The results of recent pet feeding trials suggest that Miscanthus grass is readily accepted and utilized by dogs and cats and offers similar fiber concentration to cellulose, however, with slightly higher soluble fiber content. When included in pet foods, Miscanthus grass brings similar nutrient digestibility and stool consistency among dogs fed diets with different fiber sources such as cellulose or beet pulp.
Whole seeds containing very high level of oil as well as excellent fiber source. Flaxseed oil is the best vegetable source of Omega-3 fatty acids (ALA). Whole seeds containing very high level of oil (41%). Flaxseed oil is one of the best vegetable source of Omega-3 fatty acids as its fat is made of 54% of it.
It is a perennial flowering plant native from North-East North America which provides dark colored berries which contain high antioxidants concentration, the anthocyanidins which are polyphenols, that could help maintain a strong immune system and overall health.
Cranberries are concentrated in antioxidant compounds that may help maintain overall health and a strong immune system. Their main contribution is that they also contain organic acids which act as combination of urine acidification and bacterial anti-adhesion properties which may help prevent infection of the bladder and urethra by pathogenic bacteria.
This central Asia tree is cultivated worldwide for its sweet fruits which are a good source of energy as carbohydrates and a moderate source of fiber.
Spinach an annual edible flowering plant from the family Amaranthaceae originating from western Asia which leaves are eaten as a vegetable. It is a very good source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber.
Extracted from sunflower oil, lecithin is composed of phosphoglycerides, which aid in the digestion of fats and their dispersion throughout the body helping then improve their use. It also helps improve digestion, health in general and skin and coat condition in particular.
Kelp (algae meal)
Seaweed of which trace mineral, amino acids and vitamins content would help maintain healthy skin and coat.
Taurine, DL-methionine, L-lysine
These are building blocks and main components of proteins which are called essential amino acids. Essential means that they must be present in food as they cannot be produced at all or in sufficient quantities by the body to meet the needs. There are 10 essentials for dogs and 11 for cats (taurine being the 11th one for cats).
DIGESTION and INTESTINAL HEALTH: the most important factor!!
Even if an animal eats the best ingredients available, these will not be utilized properly if the digestive system is functioning poorly. Providing a healthy digestive environment is the key to optimizing feed efficiency and good health and doing it naturally is improving the chances of success impressively.
The following unique ingredients added in BOREAL CAT FOODS are acting as a team providing a healthy digestive environment which is the key to maximizing food digestibility and efficiency.
Yeast extract (Mannan oligosaccharides - MOS)
Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) or yeast extract are short polymers of mannose, extracted from yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). They may help prevent colonization of the intestine by pathogens, in particular Salmonella and E. coll. MOS are obtained by yeast cell autolysis, which yields yeast extract and cell wall concentrate by centrifugation. Their effects differ from those of true prebiotics. Pathogenic bacteria bind to MOS and are excreted instead of binding to the intestinal wall. MOS also stimulate the production of mucin, a protein present in the mucus that coats the intestinal epithelium and represents the first line of defense against invaders. Mucin plays a major role in maintaining a healthy microbial population.
Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) - prebiotic
Since the value of probiotics (good and friendly bacteria) became widely accepted, interest in substances that support their growth in the intestine has grown. These are essentially carbohydrates that are not digested in the stomach or small intestine (i.e non-caloric) and not utilized by pathogens. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are carbohydrates derived from chicory roots, sugar beet or sugar cane and used as food source for the naturally present good bacteria. They aid digestion by allowing these beneficial bacteria to lower intestinal pH (which means providing a more acid environment). This inhibits both pathogens and putrefying bacteria and thus reduces stool odour. The prebiotic/beneficial bacteria tandem is also believed to have a positive impact on immune system function.
Organic acids (Fumaric acid, lactic acid, citric acid, malic acid)
A mixture of fumaric, citric, lactic and malic acids encapsulated in fat in order to ensure their release in the intestine instead of the stomach is sometimes included in monogastric diets, but rarely in pet foods. This acidifies the intestinal environment, favouring the growth of beneficial bacteria over that of pathogens. The acids may also penetrate the cell wall of harmful bacteria such as salmonella and coliforms to inhibit them directly. This product is proposed as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in livestock feeds. Although studies on pets have shown organic acids are beneficial, its use to maintain the health of domestic pets needs further scientific evidence.
Source of natural essential oils including thymol and carvacrol (considered the most effective) and phenols such p-cymene, estragol and linalool. Obtained by steam distillation of thyme leaves, it has antimicrobial activity (against Enterobacteriaceae and others) at very low concentrations. It helps lower intestinal pH as well as maintaining stool firmness.
Yucca Schidigera extract
Yucca Schidigera is a herbaceous shrub-tree like plant of the lily family mainly cultivated in Mexico as well as in the south west USA. The saponins present in the extract help reduce stool odors.
Also known as locust bean, it is a species of flowering evergreen shrub or tree of the pea family, widely cultivated for its edible pods (fruit), which, when dehydrated and ground, can help maintain firm stools
Well-known plant whose root helps stabilize the digestive system thus having an antiemetic effect (ability to reduce or stop nausea and vomiting). Fresh ginger would be composed of about forty active elements whose anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties are well known.
STRESS and pH AID INGREDIENTS GROUP
The nutrition and consequently the health of pets have undergone vast improvement over the past decades. Especially in the case of dogs and cats, people no longer view having a four-legged companion as pet ownership, but rather as a parenting role. Pets are family members, and pet parents wish to provide for them with the same quality of consideration that is given to managing family life as a whole. As human life expectancy and quality improve, people naturally want their furry four-legged companions to live longer, healthier lives as well. Nutritional issues are one of the three main challenges facing the future of animal health, along with genetics and oncology. Superior nutrition is expected to play a protective and preventive role in helping pets face lifestyle challenges similar to those facing their human parents. The appearance of the skin and fur is a good indicator of the overall health of our pets. Cats have specific challenges related to overall well-being and urinary tract health. The most common cause of urinary tract health issues is urolithiasis (deposition of small stones or stones in the urinary tract). The struvite crystals are the most common and may form a plug while preventing the flow of urine. Other important factors are associated with these issues such as age, obesity, environmental conditions and especially stress.
WELL KNOWN RISK FACTORS
SEX: males are more inclined to urinary tract health issues because of the anatomy of the urethra, which is narrower and in form of a funnel!
DIET / FOOD: food too rich in Mg or P, often the case for low-end foods because of their low caloric density.
WATER: cats are animals originally from the desert and do not have naturally the tendency to drink water which make their urine to be more concentrated, so increasing risk of blockage
STRESS: Tensions due to stress or anxiety have a contractionary effect on the muscles and organs of the body, especially on the bladder and the urinary tract that are very sensitive to this. A change of habits such moving, the arrival of a new person or animal, renovations etc. is enough to trigger symptoms. According to recent research, provide your pet a comfortable and soothing living environment is as important as the choice of food. Whatever the used food, whether from a veterinary clinic or a pet shop / pet food store, cats in times of stress and / or anxiety are likely to have urinary problems and even suffer a full urinary blockage.
Dr Tony Buffington, Ohio State University
INGREDIENTS for STRESS MANAGEMENT and pH CONTROL for URINARY TRACT HEALTH
MAIN ROLE: Optimal stress management and urinary tract health:
- maintaining healthy urinary tract environment
- optimizing water / osmotic preservation in cells
- promoting stress reduction
- reducing pathogens presence by acidifying urine
This spray-dried concentrate contains over 90 % antioxidant compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, ellagic acid, proanthocyanidins) and therefore provides a low-calorie alternative to eating large quantities of whole fruit. It also contains organic acids. The combination of urine acidification and bacterial anti-adhesion properties helps prevent infection of the bladder and urethra by E. coll. Cranberries have been included in whole dry form in pet foods for some time but very rarely as extract.
Chamomile is a well-known herb of which flowers possess constituents such as polyphenols and essential oils, which can facilitate relaxation, thus helping to reduce stress while getting a harmonious digestion.
Plant of which root possesses constituents which have soothing properties that could help reduce stress and anxiety.
L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid precursor to serotonin (a neurotransmitter acting on central nervous system regulating mainly stress and aggressivity and contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness), melatonin (a hormone involved in relaxation process in the body) and niacin. L-tryptophan supplementation helps reduce anxiety and stress which in turns improves pet's welfare.
VITALITY and IMMUNITY:
Some ingredients are useful because of their effects as stimulators of the biochemical processes by which macronutrients are utilized as well as of the functioning of an entire physiological system. These are primarily Innovative ingredients used in pet foods that may help stimulate some important metabolic activity. Antioxidants in foods are now widely recognized as playing a protective role in humans and animals, decreasing chemical damage to cells (free radical formation). The immune system was designed by Nature to respond to the presence of unfamiliar substances with complex surface structures. It also helps maintain a strong immune system while optimizing cellular metabolism during stress situations. These will help enhance and improve your pet's well-being as well as help maintain good health.
The following unique ingredients added in BOREAL CAT FOODS are acting as a team providing help to support your pet's vitality and happiness while helping her/him maintain excellent health.
▪ may help maintain strong immune system
• may help manage optimal energy level
• may help optimize water / osmotic preservation in cells may help promote cellular metabolism during stress situation
Also called vitamin Bt, it is an amino acid that has an important role in the utilization of fat as a source of energy and hence in weight control. The body obtains it either by endogenous synthesis or from foods such as red meat. Its primary function is to facilitate the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria, inside which they are converted into energy. These fatty acids cannot otherwise cross the mitochondrial membrane. Only a certain % of the L-carnitine requirement is met by synthesis in the body, so supplementation is often a positive element for the metabolism. Other roles of L-carnitine in the body include support for antioxidant activity, facilitating absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, maintaining the integrity of smooth muscles and facilitating energy source utilization by the cardio-vascular system.
Spice from sweet pepper that helps stimulate the digestive system. Its high concentrations of vitamin C and beta-carotene would also help boost the immune system.
Originating from southern Asia this ginger family this root is dried and reduced to powder to obtain this well-known spice which contains high level of antioxidants and other components having beneficial effects on the immune system and overall health. The curcumin contained in turmeric has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Turmeric would also help maintain the integrity of the gastric mucosa, promote the production of bile and would therefore be indicated to relieve liver problems.
Green tea extract
Made from green tea, these concentrated essential oils may help maintain fresh breath, control tartar and maintain a strong immune system
These are organic compounds found in ingredients (plants and animals) in their natural state in a minimal amount. They are essential for normal tissue development, growth, life support, and overall health. They play a vital role in metabolism (energy production).
VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENT (source of vitamin A)
Vitamin A was the first vitamin to be identified and thus discovered_ Its !primary role as regulator of cell structure metabolism combined with its action in vision and normal bone development make it an essential part of the overall health of your pet.
VITAMIN D3 SUPPLEMENT (source of vitamin D3)
Vitamin D, known as the sunshine vitamin, has an important effect on the use of calcium in the body of animals and is essential for the development of bones and teeth as well as for muscular and cellular functions.
VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENT (source of vitamin E)
Present in various forms called tocopherols, vitamin E is particularly required by the body as an antioxidant, preventing oxidation (therefore deterioration) of fat present in the body. It is also associated with cellular respiration and DNA synthesis.
THIAMINE MONONITRATE (source of thiamine - vitamin B1)
Vitamin from the B complex group, thiamine is essential for proper metabolism functioning through its impact on the transformation of glucose into energy and its involvement in the nervous and muscular systems.
RIBOFLAVIN (source of riboflavin - vitamin B2) Essential for energy transfer, riboflavin is directly associated with the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins.
CALCIUM PANTOTHENATE (source of pantothenic acid - vitamin B5) Required for the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, pantothenic acid also helps the development of mucous membranes and the growth and resistance of the skin. It also helps reduce the effects of stress through its action on the nervous system and the adrenal glands.
PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE (source of pyridoxine - vitamin B6)
This vitamin B complex member is directly associated with the metabolism of amino acids, therefore proteins and more particularly that of tryptophan. It also has an impact on carbohydrate metabolism by helping the use of glycogen in muscles and liver.
VITAMIN B12 SUPPLEMENT (source of vitamin B12)
Being an important growth stimulant also known as cobalamin, vitamin B12 helps in blood formation and nervous system cells and tissues maintenance. It is also involved in DNA and red blood cells production as well as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins metabolism, and further into the development of myelin (a protective layer surrounding nerves).
BIOTIN (source of biotin)
Biotin participates in the general metabolism by helping to transform food into energy and intervenes in the fatty and amino acids formation. It also helps maintain healthy skin, coat and mucous membranes while contributing to normal nervous system functioning.
NIACINAMIDE (source of niacin)
Involved in the body energy transfer, niacin, like riboflavin, is directly involved in the energy production from lipids, carbohydrates and proteins.
CHOLINE CHLORIDE (source of choline)
Not really a true vitamin, choline is still considered as is because of its biological functions and its distribution in food ingredients. Its main requirements are as nervous tissues and fats structural component. As component of phospholipids, choline is essential in the production and maintenance of cell structure, and as component of acetylcholine, it is important and active in the nerve impulses transmission.
MINERALS (macro and trace minerals)
From natural organic or inorganic sources, minerals are essential for the body's structures, functions and metabolism. They are divided in two groups; macro-minerals (required in greater amount and expressed as % of the ration) and trace minerals (needed in smaller amounts and mainly expressed as mg/kg of the ration). The generic term commonly used in animal nutrition to describe them is: Ash (which actually means ... all minerals).
Macro-minerals are essential for solid structures such as skeleton (mainly calcium, phosphorus and magnesium), as well as for enzymatic activity (metabolism - improves the speed of chemical reactions of the body) and for the transfer of nutrients from the digestive system to the circulatory system (mainly sodium and potassium). They are also essential in maintaining the balance of electrolytes, therefore in the balance of body fluids. They are also including sodium and chloride which are mainly offered through salt (here is sea salt).
Trace minerals are heavily involved in most metabolic functions such as growth and development, immunity and reproduction. Their importance is such that simple moderate deficiencies could influence animal performances. See their sources below as well as a brief description of their individual functions. ✓ zinc oxide (source of zinc): protein synthesis, vitamin a utilization, epithelial tissue integrity, immune system and reproduction
✓ manganous oxide (source of manganese): bone and cartilage synthesis, enzyme systems, reproduction, immune respo nse
✓ copper sulphate (source of copper): collagen synthesis and maintenance, enzyme function, red blood cell maturation, reproduction, immune response
✓ ferrous sulphate (source of iron): oxygen transport in hemoglobin
✓ sodium selenite (source of selenium): component of glutathione peroxidase, thyroid hormone metabolism, immune response
✓ calcium iodate (source of iodine): thyroid hormone synthesis, thermoregulation
CHELATED TRACE MINERALS (zinc, copper, manganese and iron proteinates)
Also named proteinates, these minerals are indeed associated with proteins which allows to optimize and improve their assimilation. The main ones are zinc, iron, copper and manganese proteinates.
OTHER SPECIFICALLY SELECTED FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS
Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)
It is an alkaline salt which can contribute to healthy teeth by helping to reduce the presence of tartar (note that teeth brushing is still the main proper way for superior oral care). STPP is allowed as a food additive by the EU, US is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Glucosamine is naturally made by the body from glucose and glutamine, an amino acid. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the cartilage of all joints and its action is thought to help increase the lubricating action of the synovial fluid as well as to slow down cartilage degradation, helping then maintain healthy joints. As supplement added to pet foods, glucosamine is synthesized from chitin extracted from crustacean's carapace (shrimps, langoustines, crabs, lobsters) and is generally used in the form of glucosamine sulfate or glucosamine hydrochloride.
Chondroitin is a polysaccharide naturally produced by the body present in bones, skin, cornea and arteries membrane. It is an essential constituent of cartilage tissues which contributes to its formation and maintenance. its role is to ensure water retention in the cartilage and its elasticity, as well as joints strength and flexibility. As supplement added to pet foods, chondroitin is extracted from swine, chicken or poultry cartilage and is generally used in the form of chondroitin sulfate.
Powerful antioxidant extracted from rosemary which help protect fats from rancidity.